How did the idea for Santa Claus originate?
The American version of the Santa Claus figure received its inspiration and its name from the Dutch legend of Sinterklaas (A Dutch variant of the name Saint Nicholas).
Dutch Colonists took this tradition with them to New Amsterdam (Now New Your City) in the American colonies in the 17th Century.
As early as 1773, the name appeared in the American press as St. A Claus, but it was the popular author Washington Irving who gave Americans their first detailed information about the Dutch version of Saint Nicholas. In his History of New York, published in 1809 under the pseudonym: Diedrich Knickerbocher, Irving described the arrival of the saint on horseback each Eve of Saint Nicholas.
This Dutch-American Saint Nick achieved his fully Americanized form in 1823 in the poem: A Visit From Saint Nicholas. More commonly known as: The Night before Christmas. Written by Clement Clarke Moore. Moore included such details as the names of the reindeer; Santa Clauss laughs, winks, and nods; and the method by which Saint Nicholas, referred to as an elf, returns up the chimney (Moores phrase Lays his finger aside of his nose was drawn directly from Irvings 1809 description).
The American image of Santa Clause was further elaborated by illustrator Thomas Nast, who depicted a rotund Santa for Christmas issues of Harpers Magazine from the 1860s to the 1880s. Nast added such details as Santas workshop at the North Pole and Santas list of the good and bad children of the world. In the first Nast illustration, Santa was delivering Christmas gifts to soldiers fighting the civil War. The cartoon, entitled Santa Claus in Camp appeared in Harpers Weekly on January 2, 1863.
A human-sized version of Santa, rather than the elf of Moores poem, was depicted in a series of illustrations created by Haddom Sundblom for Coca-Cola advertisements introduced in 1931. In modern versions of the Santa Claus legend, only his toyshop workers are elves.
An advertising writer named Robert May, invented Rudolph, the ninth reindeer, with a Red and shiny nose, while working on a catalog for the Montgomery Ward Company in 1939.
In looking for the historical roots, one discovers that Santa Claus, as we know him, is a combination of many different legends and mythical creatures.
The basis for the Christian-era Santa Claus is Bishop Nicholas of Smyrna (Izmir), in what is now Turkey. Nicholas lived in the 4th Century A.D. He was very rich, generous and loving toward children. Often he gave joy to poor children by throwing gifts in through their windows.
The Orthodox Church later raised St. Nicholas, miracle worker, to a position of great esteem. It was in his honor that Russias oldest church, for example, was built. For its part, the Roman Catholic Church honored Nicholas as on who helped children and the poor. St. Nicholas became the patron saint of children and seafarers. His name day is Dec. 6th.